The Science Behind Relationship Compatibility


DNA Romance predicts "Chemistry" online using the DRom 1.0 algorithm. This algorithm assesses 100 specific markers within your DNA, focusing on genes proven to be involved in attraction and reproduction. Studies have shown that people with varied DNA markers in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) tend to find each other’s scent appealing and often enjoy more durable romantic relationships .

DRom 1.0 Predicts Chemistry & Mismatches Relatives

DNA Rmance DRom1.0 Predicts Chemistry


DNA Romance also forecasts personality compatibility using personality types derived from psychometric tests, and allows users to evaluate shared common interests using filters, and physical attraction based on their match’s photographs. DNA Romance’s second genetic algorithm DRom 2.0 uses an AI model trained with relevant DNA markers to predict phenotypic traits with high accuracy. DRom 2.0 complements DNA Romance’s profile verification mechanism, which presents multiple layers of checks that help to better indicate user profile authenticity.



Personality Compatibility Rating

How Different Personality Types Interact in Relationships

Explore our personality compatibility rating, inspired by the renowned Jung/Myers-Briggs 16 personality types. Developed over a century ago by Swiss psychiatrist Dr. Carl Jung and further refined by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katherine Briggs, this psychometric test has stood the test of time. Recognized as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®, it's widely used in organizational psychology.
DNA Romance utilizes this personality compatibility algorithm to predict potential connections between both singles and couples. DNA Romance's algorithms strategically assigns higher compatibility scores to similar personality types, and lower scores to those that may conflict.

DNA Romance personality compatibility score

Key Research Papers

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MHC Based Attraction (aka Chemistry) and Relationship Choice

DNA Romance predicts "Chemistry" using DRom 1.0, an algorithm that analyses Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)confirmed to influence relationship choice in several independent studies. Here we present just a few of the research papers we evaluated in order to develop DRom 1.0 .

Birnbaum GE, Zholtack K, Mizrahi M & Ein-Dor T (2019) The Bitter Pill: Cessation of Oral Contraceptives Enhances the Appeal of Alternative Mates Evolutionary Psychological Science volume 5, pages 276–285

*** Hormonal contraceptives alter women's mate preferences towards more nurturing men, but ceasing their use reverts these preferences, enhancing attraction towards more genetically compatible men, especially during high-fertility phases, potentially motivating a pursuit of alternative mates.

Wedekind C (2019) A predicted interaction between odour pleasantness and intensity provides evidence for major histocompatibility complex social signalling in women . Proc. R. Soc. B 285:20172714.

*** The paper describes the connection between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and odor preferences in humans, debating previous findings and analyzing how armpit shaving and other factors may influence the perception of body odor and its linkage to MHC, with a reanalysis of past data revealing that odor pleasantness and intensity can interact with MHC dissimilarity in influencing social signaling through scent, implicating a nuanced relationship between MHC, odor perception, and social communication.

Wu K, Chen C, Moyzis RK, Nuno M, Yu Z and Greenberger E (2018) More than skin deep: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-based attraction among Asian American speed-daters Evolution and Human Behavior. 39(4):447-456.

*** In a speed-dating context, women, but not men, showed preferences for partners based on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) complementarity through SNP analysis, with different SNPs influencing attraction directionally based on proximity to major HLA genes, and MHC-based indices held comparable influence to self-reported personality attributes in predicting second date offers for both genders.

Henningsson S, Hovey D, Vass K, Walum H, Sandnabba K, Santtila P, Jern P, Westberg L (2017) A missense polymorphism in the putative pheromone receptor gene VN1R1 is associated with sociosexual behavior . Transl Psychiatry. 7(4):e1102.

*** The study finds a significant association between a polymorphism in the VN1R1 gene, related to the human vomeronasal type-1 receptor 1 (part of the system mediating effects of pheromones), and sociosexual behavior in women, particularly relating to one-night stands, suggesting that chemosignaling might play a role in modulating human social interactions.

Sherlock JM, Sidari MJ, Harris EA, Barlow FK, Zietsch BP (2016) Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours . Socioaffect Neurosci Psychol. 6:31562.

*** The study suggests that women experience varying orgasm frequencies with different partners, with those inducing higher orgasm rates being perceived as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better-smelling, and also being more attentive to their partner's sexual satisfaction, partially supporting the mate-choice hypothesis of female orgasm which posits it as a potential mechanism for selecting high-quality mates.

Kromer J, Hummel T, Pietrowski D, Giani AS, Sauter J, Ehninger G, Schmidt AH, Croy I (2016) Influence of HLA on human partnership and sexual satisfaction . Sci Rep. 6:32550.

*** The study indicates that in humans, HLA (a genetic component of the immune system) dissimilarity can influence mate selection and sexual satisfaction, potentially through the detection of olfactory cues related to genetic compatibility, similarly to mechanisms observed in other animals, promoting genetic diversity and resilience against pathogens in offspring.

Wlodarski R. and Dunbar RIM. (2015) What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability . Evol Psychol. ; 12(1): 178–199.

*** This study found that perceived romantic kissing ability affects evaluations of potential mates, increasing desirability particularly for women in casual sex contexts, and while visual cues can override the impact of kissing-related information in certain mating scenarios, the influence of attractive visual information appears more potent for men than for women, alluding to the multifaceted role of kissing in conveying mate quality and desirability alongside other cues.

Christakis NA and Fowler JH (2014) Friendship and natural selection PNAS. 11:10796–10801.

*** The study demonstrates that humans tend to form friendships with individuals who have similar genotypes—akin to the level of fourth cousins—across the entire genome, and while certain genotypes are positively correlated (homophilic), others are negatively correlated (heterophilic) among friends, with particular gene sets related to olfactory and immune system playing a role in friendship formation, proposing that friends might act as "functional kin" and suggesting that homophilic genotypes may offer synergistic fitness benefits that have been influencing recent human evolution.

Lie HC, Simmons LH and Rhodes G (2010) Genetic dissimilarity, genetic diversity, and mate preferences in humans . Evolution and Human Behavior 31:8–58.

*** This study explores the influence of genetic factors, particularly the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), on mate preferences in humans, discovering that males tend to prefer MHC-dissimilar females in both short-term and long-term mating contexts, while genetic diversity impacts both male and female partner preferences across different mating contexts, thus supporting a significant role for the MHC in human mate selection and suggesting that these preferences might function to enhance genetic diversity in offspring.

Lie HC, Rhodes G and Simmons LH (2010) Is genetic diversity associated with mating success in humans ? Animal Behaviour. 79, 4:903-909

*** This study indicates that in humans, particularly females, genetic diversity, especially within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is associated with greater mating success, measured by the number of sexual partners, supporting the concept that genetic factors, potentially related to immune system functioning, play a role in human mating success, while no significant association was found in males.

Chaix R, Cao C, and Donnelly P (2008) Is Mate Choice in Humans MHC-Dependent ? PLOS Genetics, 4 (9)

*** The study indicates that while European American populations may prefer MHC-dissimilar mates, selecting for diversity in offspring's immune systems, such a pattern is not found in the examined African population, suggesting MHC's influence on mate choice can be context-dependent and potentially shaped by various factors.

Schwensow N, Fietz J, Dausmann K, Sommer S (2008) MHC-associated mating strategies and the importance of overall genetic diversity in an obligate pair-living primate . Evol Ecol. (22) 617-636

*** The study explores mate choice in the fat-tailed dwarf lemur, finding females prefer males with greater MHC-genetic diversity and lower MHC overlap as both social and genetic fathers, while overall genetic heterozygosity and relatedness do not significantly influence mate selection; extra-pair matings might occur to mitigate genetic incompatibility, highlighting a complex interplay of "good-genes-as-heterozygosity" and "disassortative mating" hypotheses in primate mating strategies.

Wedekind C (2007) The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Perfumers’ Descriptions of Human Body Odors Evolutionary Psychology.5(2): 330-343

*** This experiment reveals a connection between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and the verbal descriptions of human body odors, demonstrating that professional perfumers can, to some extent, articulate MHC-correlated body odor components, underscoring the MHC's influence on human olfactory perception and possibly, mate selection, given the MHC's critical role in immune system functioning and previously noted impact on body odor and mate choice.

Garver-Apgar CE, Gangestad SW, Thornill R, Miller RD and Olp JJ (2006) Major histocompatibility complex alleles, sexual responsivity, and unfaithfulness in romantic couples Psychol Sci, 17(10): 830-835.

*** In the context of romantic couples, the study finds that as the proportion of shared Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) alleles increases, women’s sexual responsivity to their partners decreases, while their number of extra-pair sexual partners and attraction to men other than their primary partners, especially during their fertile phase, increases, suggesting that MHC-dissimilarity might play a role in sexual attraction and partner selection, potentially driven by underlying genetic and reproductive strategies to enhance offspring immunocompetence by maintaining genetic diversity.

Roberts CE, Gosling LM, Carter V and Petrie M (2006) MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives Proc. R. Soc. B 275, 2715–2722

*** This study investigates how oral contraceptives influence women's preferences for certain male odours, which are known to be influenced by genes in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Previous research has indicated that female preference for MHC-dissimilar male odour may function to increase offspring heterozygosity or minimize inbreeding. Interestingly, it has also been suggested that women using oral contraceptives tend to prefer the scent of MHC-similar males, which runs contrary to this logic. The study utilized a longitudinal design to test women before and after initiating contraceptive pill use, comparing their preferences to a control group of non-pill users. While the study didn’t find a significant difference in ratings between odours of MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar men during the follicular cycle phase in general, it did unearth that single women tended to prefer the odour of MHC-similar men, whereas women in relationships leaned towards the odour of MHC-dissimilar men. This latter finding aligns.

Wedekind C (2006) The Intensity of Human Body Odors and the MHC: Should We Expect A Link ? Evolutionary Psychology. 4:85-94

*** This research discerns relationships between a few MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) genes and the intensity and pleasantness of men's body odors, discovering that men with at least one homozygous MHC antigen don't emit notably more intense odors than heterozygotes, yet their scents are perceived as significantly stronger by women with dissimilar MHC.

Pause BM, Krauel K, Schrader C, Sojka B, Westphal E, Mu¨ller-Ruchholtz W, and Ferstl R. (2006) The human brain is a detector of chemosensorily transmitted HLA-class I-similarity in same- and opposite-sex relations Proc. R. Soc. B (2006) 273, 471–478 doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3342

*** This study reveals that humans subconsciously detect and respond to body odors from individuals with similar HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) genetic markers, which might play a critical role in social interactions and mate selection by acting as subtle social signals within both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships..

Martins Y, Preti G, Crabtree CR, Runyan T, Vainius AA and Wysocki CJ (2005) Preference for Human Body Odors Is Influenced by Gender and Sexual Orientation . Psychological Science, 16(9) 694-702

*** This study demonstrates that sexual orientation and gender influence individuals' preferences for human body odors, with heterosexual and homosexual males and females showcasing distinct two-choice preferences when presented with body odors from individuals of different gender and sexual orientation combinations, implying that body odor can be a factor in sexual and social partner selection.

Horton R, Wilming L, Rand V, Lovering RC, Bruford EA, Khodiyar VK, Lush MJ, Povey S, Talbot CC Jr, Wright MW, Wain HM, Trowsdale J, Ziegler A, Beck S (2004) Gene map of the extended human MHC. Nat Rev Genet 5(12):889-899

*** This study characterises an integrated gene map of the extended human MHC, a pivotal region in the vertebrate genome for infection and autoimmunity due to its essential role in both adaptive and innate immunity, highlighting its significant content related to paralogy, polymorphism, immune functionality, and its association with various diseases, providing a comprehensive view stemming from the assimilation of data from several large-scale studies..

Jacob S, McClitock MK, Zelano B and Ober C (2002) Paternally inherited HLA alleles are associated with woman’s choice of male odour . Nature Genetics, 30:175

*** This study demonstrates that women can discern differences in male body odor influenced by a single variance in HLA (human MHC) allele, with a woman's capacity to distinguish and prefer certain odors notably being based on HLA alleles inherited from her father and not her mother; this suggests that paternally inherited HLA-associated odors influence odor preference and might function as social cues, even despite a milieu of potential odors derived from a variety of genetic and cultural factors..

Milinski M and Wedekind C (2001) Evidence for MHC-correlated perfume preference in humans . Behavioural Ecology 12(2):140-149

*** The study explores the relationship between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genotypes and perfume preferences in humans. They discovered a notable correlation between an individual's MHC (specifically HLA-A, -B, -DR) and their ratings of various scents for personal use, with certain HLA types (e.g., HLA-A2) showing consistent scent preferences. However, when it came to preferences for a partner's scent, the correlation was largely insignificant, aligning with the hypothesis that individuals select perfumes for personal use to possibly enhance or amplify their own immunogenetic revealing body odors, rather than to alter the perceived scents of their partners.

Wedekind C, Seebeck T, Bettens F And Paepke AJ (1995) MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B. 260:245-249.

*** This study found that people tend to prefer the body odors of potential mates who have different immune system genes than their own, but this preference changes for women on birth control.

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How similarities or differences in MHC alleles can influence family planning

MHC similarity between couples is known to cause issues with family planning, here are some of the peer-reviewed papers describing the role of MHC similarity and human reproduction .

* found that sperm viability was associated with partners' HLA dissimilarity, indicating that cervical mucus may selectively facilitate later gamete fusion between immunogenetically compatible partners .

Jokiniemi A, Magris M, Ritari J, Kuusipalo L, Lundgren T, Partanen J and Kekäläinen J (2020) Post-copulatory genetic matchmaking: HLA-dependent effects of cervical mucus on human sperm function Proc Biol Sci., doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1682. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

* found an increased frequency of homozygosity for HLA-E*0101 in Egyptian women with RM

Mosaad YM, Abdel-Dayem Y, El-Deek BS and El-Sherbini SM (2011) Association between HLA-E *0101 homozygosity and recurrent miscarriage in Egyptian women . Scand J Immunol. 2011 Aug;74(2):205-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2011.02559.x.

* proposed a genetic-risk calculation that could predict recurrent miscarriage (RM) based on analysing HLA haplotypes from couples either with histories of successful pregnancies or RM .

Mora-Sánchez A, Aguilar-Salvador D, Nowak I (2019) Towards a gamete matching platform: using immunogenetics and artificial intelligence to predict recurrent miscarriage NPJ Digit Med Mar 7;2:12. doi: 10.1038/s41746-019-0089-x

* performed a meta-analyses of 41 studies and showed that HLA-B sharing and HLA-DR sharing were both associated with the occurrence of RM .

Meuleman T, Lashley LE, Dekkers OM, van Lith J, Claas FH and Bloemenkamp KW (2015) HLA associations and HLA sharing in recurrent miscarriage: A systematic review and meta-analysis Hum Immunol. May;76(5):362-73. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2015.02.004.

* identified differential association of alleles in HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 when compared with reported world RSA patients .

Shankarkumar U, Pawar A, Gaonkar P, Parasannavar D, Salvi V, and Ghosh K (2008) HLA allele associations in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients from India J Hum Reprod Sci. 2008 Jan;1(1):19-24. doi: 10.4103/0974-1208.39592.

* describe the relationship between HLA similarity at individual alleles, as well as HLA haplotypes as indicators for increased risk of fetal loss among Hutterite couples .

Ober C (1999) Studies of HLA, fertility and mate choice in a human isolate . Hum Reprod Update 5(2):103-107.

* results of a 10 year study that demonstrated increased fetal loss rates among Hutterite couples matching for HLA antigens .

Ober C, Hyslop T, Elias S, Weitkamp LR, Hauck WW (1998) Human leukocyte antigen matching and fetal loss: results of a 10 year prospective study Human Reproduction, Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 1998, Pages 33–38

* demonstrated increased rates of recurrent spontaneous abortion among Hutterite couples matching for HLA-DQA1 alleles

Ober., Steck., Ven., Billstrand., Messer., Kwak., Beaman., Beer (1993) MHC class II compatibility in aborted fetuses and term infants of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion Journal of Reproductive Immunology, Volume 25, Issue 3, December 1993, Pages 195-207

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Personality Types

Our personality compatibility rating is based on the Myers-Briggs 16 personality types. This test has a long history with the development of the first 3 components dating back almost 100 years to Dr. Carl Jung and today the 4 letters and 16 personality type groups are widely known to the majority of people. DNA Romance's personality compatibility algorithm, called PC1, puts maximum weight on similar personality types and less weight towards personality types that tend to clash.

Lok C (2012) Career development: What's your type ? Nature, 488: 545-547

* The article highlights the utilization of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and similar personality tests in assisting scientists to enhance their soft skills and navigate their careers by providing insights into their personality traits, which can inform their communication, leadership, and teamwork strategies within professional environments.

Keirsey, D (2006) Please Understand Me II (3rd ed) . Promethius Nemesis Book Co., Del Mar, CA.

Please Understand Me is a psychology book by David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates that employs a self-assessed questionnaire, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, to categorize individuals into one of sixteen personality types and four broader temperament types (Artisan, Guardian, Rational, and Idealist), offering readers insights into their behavioral patterns and fundamental values, while drawing upon and simplifying previous psychological theories and type indicators, notably the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Myers IB, McCaulley MH, Quenk NL and Hammer AL (1998) MBTI manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator . Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, Vol. 3.

The MBTI® Manual, third edition, serves as a comprehensive guide, detailing the development, application, and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument, providing in-depth information about the theory, reliability, and validity of the tool, and offering insights into the 16 personality types it identifies, all authored by leading experts in psychological type, Isabel Briggs Myers, Mary H. McCaulley, Naomi L. Quenk, and Allen L. Hammer.

Myers IB, McCaulley MH and Most R (1985) Manual, a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.

The 1985 edition, 'Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator,' introduces and elucidates the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®), designed to render C. G. Jung's psychological type theory comprehensible and applicable in daily life, underlining the principle that behavioral variations, while seemingly sporadic, are consistently orderly, deriving from intrinsic differences in individuals’ preferred use of perception and judgment.

Myers IB (1962) Manual, a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press .

The 1962 manual for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator provides comprehensive insights and guidelines for implementing C. Jung’s theory of psychological types, asserting that behavioral variations are systematic and consistent due to basic perceptual and judgmental preferences, aiming to leverage these preferences through self-reports to ascertain individual psychological types, thereby enabling the practical application and research into their effects on reactions, motivations, values, and capabilities.

Jung CG (1923) Psychological types: or the psychology of individuation Oxford, England: Harcourt, Brace .

Psychological Types by Carl Gustav Jung, first published in 1923, introduces the seminal psychological theory of typology, presenting a framework that seeks to explain the diverse and seemingly random differences in personality through a systematic and orderly theory, proposing that fundamental variations in human behavior arise due to inherent differences in how individuals prefer to utilize their cognitive functions of perception and judgment, laying the groundwork for numerous personality theories and assessments to come, notably the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).



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